Skinheads remain racially motivated instead of being territorial or inspired to commit crimes for profit. They are still loose-knit and unorganized, but there is some evidence that a few of the gangs have developed an internal gang structure. Some have printed and distributed membership applications, collected dues, established rules and regulations, and conducted meetings with formal minutes. The application for the American Front Skinhead gang implies that if a member betrays the organization, the pu nishment is "death by crucifixion." Some of the gangs have established phone hot lines, post office boxes, and their own publications intended to recruit new members.
The typical Skinhead gang in the 1990s varies in size from 5 to 20 members, and the age ranges from the early teens to the mid-20s. They continue to shave their heads, but some now have short hair or have grown their hair long to disguise their gang memb ership. They still have racist-related tattoos including WSU and AYM for White Students Union and Aryan Youth Movement. Their graffiti continues to incorporate the use of swastikas and slogans to profess Nazism. Their weapons now include handguns, rifl es, and automatic weapons.
Female gang members are becoming increasingly involved in Skinhead-related hate crimes. They have joined in the gang attacks on targeted victims by male gang members.
Skinheads continue to travel throughout the country, associate with other Skinhead gangs, and commit or encourage hate crimes of racial violence including assaults, drive-by shootings, and murders.
In July 1991, police officers searched a vacant residence in Beaverton, Oregon, after American Front Skinheads had been evicted. Material found in the residence included a "hit list" targeting Portland, Oregon, police officers. A female Skinhead gang me mber from California, who is the secretary of the American Front, was residing in the residence with other Skinheads prior to the eviction.
The American Front, which originated in San Francisco, now has Skinhead associations in several states. American Front members have been arrested for assault, possession of illegal weapons, attempted murder, and murder in Napa, San Francisco, and Sacrame nto, California as well as cities in Pennsylvania, Florida, Maryland, and Washington.
Threats, violence, and murder have occurred in California between white-supremacist Skinheads and Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP). SHARP members dress and look like white-supremacist Skinheads but oppose the white-supremacy philosophy.
Skinhead violence left one SHARP member dead from a fatal stabbing and another SHARP wounded in Sacramento during August 1990. A fight took place between rival factions of white-supremacist Skinheads and SHARP members. A member of the American Front fro m Auburn, California, was arrested for the crimes and eventually pled guilty to voluntary manslaughter and assault with a deadly weapon.
Skinheads remain aligned with white-supremacist groups, and they continue to attend KKK and other hate group meetings and rallies. These groups maintain a power base derived from racism and bigotry, and they often resort to violence in support of their beliefs.